|Luhanska oblast |
|Coordinates: 48°55′N 39°01′E / 48.92°N 39.02°E Coordinates : 48°55′N 39°01′E / 48.92°N 39.02°E|
|Established||3 June 1938|
|• Head of the Military–Civil Administration||Serhiy Haidai |
|• Oblast council||124 seats|
|• Total||26,684 km 2 (10,303 sq mi)|
|• Rank||Ranked 7th|
|• Official language(s)||Ukrainian|
|Time zone||UTC+2 ( EET )|
|• Summer ( DST )||UTC+3 ( EEST )|
|ISO 3166 code||UA-09|
|• Regional cities||14|
Luhansk Oblast ( Ukrainian : Луга́нська о́бласть , romanized : Luhanska oblast ; also referred to as Luhanshchyna , Ukrainian : Луга́нщина ) is the easternmost oblast (province) of Ukraine . As of 11 September 2022, nearly all of the oblast is under the occupation of Russia and Luhansk People's Republic separatist state, which claims the oblast as its territory. The oblast's administrative center is Luhansk . The oblast was established in 1938 and bore the name Voroshilovgrad Oblast ( Ukrainian : Ворошиловградська область , romanized : Voroshylovhradska oblast , until 1958 and again from 1970 to 1991  ) in honor of Kliment Voroshilov . Its population is estimated as 2,121,322 (2021 est.) 
Important cities within the oblast include Alchevsk , Antratsyt , Brianka , Kirovsk , Krasnyi Luch , Krasnodon , Lysychansk , Luhansk , Pervomaisk , Rovenky , Rubizhne , Sverdlovsk , Sievierodonetsk , and Stakhanov .
The war in Donbas and the subsequent 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine saw heavy fighting in the oblast, with Sievierodonetsk captured in June by Russian and LPR forces  after an assault lasting several weeks,   and the oblast's last major settlement under Ukrainian control, Lysychansk , captured by Russian and Russia-backed forces on 2 July.  The next day, Russia's Minister of Defence announced that the entire territory of the oblast had been "liberated",  but three weeks later the governor of the oblast reported heavy fighting was still ongoing.  On 4 September, Ukrainian forces launched a counteroffensive in eastern Ukraine and recaptured small parts of Donetsk Oblast and are currently battling for Lyman . Ukrainian forces also pushed through the stalemate at the Luhansk Oblast border and most notably recaptured Bilohirivka while engaging LPR Forces in Lysychansk.
Geography [ edit ]
Luhansk Oblast is located in eastern Ukraine . The area of the oblast (26,700 km 2 ), comprises about 4.42% of the total area of Ukraine.
Its length from north to south is 250 km. Its width from east to west is 190 km. The oblast has the longest segment of the Ukrainian international border with Russia among other regions (see State Border of Ukraine ) consisting of 746 km (464 mi).
The abutting Russian oblasts are Belgorod Oblast to the north, Voronezh Oblast to the northeast, Rostov Oblast to the east. Abutting Ukrainian oblasts are Kharkiv Oblast to the west, and Donetsk Oblast to the south.
The region is located in the valley of the Siversky Donets river, which splits the region approximately in half. The southern portion of the region is elevated by the Donetsk Ridge which is located closer to the southern border. The highest point is Mohyla Mechetna (367 m (1,204 ft)) which is the highest point of Donetsk Ridge.
The left bank of the Siversky Donets river is part of the Starobilsk Plain. To the north this transforms into the Central Russian Upland .
Adjacent subdivisions [ edit ]
Belgorod Oblast, Russia
Voronezh Oblast, Russia
Rostov Oblast, Russia
History [ edit ]
Soviet Ukraine (1938–1991) [ edit ]
The oblast originated in 1938 as Voroshylovhrad (Russian: Voroshilovgrad) Oblast after the Donetsk Oblast was split between Voroshylovhrad and Stalino (today Donetsk Oblast ) oblasts. After the invasion by Nazi Germany in 1941 the region came under a German military administration, due to its proximity to frontlines. It was occupied at the end of 1942 as part of Case Blue German offensive directed towards Stalingrad .
Soon after the battle of Stalingrad , the Luhansk region (at that time Voroshilovgrad) again became center of military operations during the Soviet counter-offensive operation Little Saturn in the spring of 1943. In the summer of 1943 the region was liberated from the Nazi Germany Armed Forces. During the Soviet era the Oblast bore its current name between 1958 and 1970.
During the fateful March Referendum of 1991, 70.16% of all Ukrainians voted to remain a part of the Soviet Union as a sovereign republic, while only 27.99% voted 'no'.  In the December 1991 referendum (after the August coup ended all hope of a restored Union), 83.86% of votes in the oblast were in favor of the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine .
Independent Ukraine (1991–2014) [ edit ]
Pro-Russian insurgency (2014–2022) [ edit ]
This section needs to be updated . The reason given is: The situation on the ground has changed dramatically, with the entire oblast falling to Russian and LPR forces as of July 3, 2022. ( July 2022 )
On 8 April 2014, following the annexation of Crimea by Russia , pro-Russian separatists occupying the Luhansk Oblast administrative building planned to declare the independence of the region as the Luhansk Parliamentary Republic, [ clarification needed ] after other pro-Russian separatists declared Donetsk People's Republic in the Donetsk Oblast (7 April 2014). When the Luhansk Parliamentary Republic ceased to exist, the separatists declared the Luhansk People's Republic on 27 April 2014. They held a disputed referendum on separating from Ukraine on 11 May 2014. The legitimacy of the referendums was not recognized by any government.  Ukraine does not recognize the referendum, while the EU and US said the polls were illegal.  Subsequently, the war in Donbas started.
As a result of the war in Donbas, Luhansk insurgents control the southern third of the oblast, which includes the city of Luhansk , the region's most populous city and the capital of the oblast. Due to this, most oblast government functions have moved to Sievierodonetsk , which forces of the Government of Ukraine recaptured in July 2014. Many universities located in the occupied areas have moved to government-controlled cities such as Sievierodonetsk, Starobilsk or Rubizhne .   A survey conducted in December 2014 by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology found 5.7% of the oblast's population supported their region joining Russia, 84.1% did not support the idea, and the rest were undecided or did not respond. Insurgent-controlled areas were not polled. 
Russian occupation (2022–present) [ edit ]
This section needs expansion . You can help by adding to it . ( July 2022 )
During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine , Russian ground forces entered occupied territory of Luhansk Oblast by crossing the Russian border on February 22, 2022, and invaded government-controlled territory across the line of contact and the Russian border on February 24. As of 26 May 2022 had occupied all but 5% of the region. 
During the Battle of Donbas , Russian troops attacked and eventually captured the cities of Sieverodonetsk and Lysychansk during May and June 2022 in two of the largest and most intense battles of the Eastern Ukraine offensive .
By 3 July 2022, Russian and allied troops controlled all all cities in oblast.
On 4-5 July 2022, during the international Ukraine Recovery Conference (URC 2022) in Lugano , Finland, Sweden , and Czechia pledged to support the postwar rebuilding of the Luhansk region. 
Administrative subdivisions [ edit ]
|English Name||Local Name||Type||
(km 2 )
1 Jan 2012
|Alchevsk||Алчевськ||city of regional significance||49||119,193||112,071||Alchevsk|
|Antratsyt||Антрацит||city of regional significance||61||90,835||78,482||Antratsit|
|Brianka||Брянка||city of regional significance||64||61,357||54,085||Brianca|
|Kirovsk||Кіровськ||city of regional significance||35||45,012||36,708||Kirovsk|
|Krasnodon||Краснодон||city of regional significance||77||118,168||104,640||Krasnodon|
|Krasnyi Luch||Красний Луч||city of regional significance||154||145,129||125,166||Krasnyi Luch|
|Luhansk||Луганськ||city of regional significance||286||503,248||466,627||Luhansk|
|Lysychansk||Лисичанськ||city of regional significance||96||133,258||120,785||Lysychansk|
|Pervomaisk||Первомайськ (Міськрада)||city of regional significance||89||80,622||70,581||Pervomaisk|
|Rovenky||Ровеньки||city of regional significance||217||91,712||84,366||Rovenky|
|Rubizhne||Рубіжне||city of regional significance||34||65,322||60,750||Rubizhne|
|Sievierodonetsk||Северодонецьк||city of regional significance||58||129,752||120,264||Sieverodonetsk|
|Slovianoserbsky (raion)||Слов'яносербський (район)||raion||1,113||62,125||55,462||Slovianoserbsk|
|Stakhanov||Стаханов||city of regional significance||92||108,266||92,818||Stakhanov|
|Sverdlovsk||Свердловськ||city of regional significance||84||110,159||99,024||Sverdlovsk|
|Total Oblast||Луганська (Область)||oblast||26,683||2,546,178||2,272,676||Luhansk|
Like the rest of the provinces in Ukraine , Luhansk Oblast has a double jurisdiction. The oblast is predominantly administrated by the Luhansk Oblast State Administration, headed by the governor of the oblast , who is appointed by the President of Ukraine . The province has a representative body, the provincial council, which is headed by its chairman and elected by popular vote.
The province is primarily divided into 18 raions (districts), and 37 cities, including 14 cities of regional significance . The administrative center is Luhansk . These raions are listed below with their areas and populations. 
The province's secondary division consists of various municipalities. Those municipalities may consist of one or more populated places. The municipalities are administratively subordinate to the raion in which they are located, with the exception of 14 cities subordinated directly to the oblast. The city of Luhansk is subdivided into its own four city-districts (boroughs).
All subdivisions are governed by their respective councils ( radas ).
Cities [ edit ]
Largest cities or towns in Luhansk Oblast
|4||Lysychansk||Lysychansk *||103 459|
|5||Krasnyi Luch||Krasnyi Luch *||82,765|
Demographics [ edit ]
The population is largely Russian -speaking, although ethnic Ukrainians constitute a majority (58.0%). Among the minorities are native Russians (39.1%), Belarusians (0.8%), and others (1.4%). Ukrainians constitute the majority in all raions except for Stanytsia-Luhanska Raion and Krasnodon Raion , both of which are east of Luhansk. Ethnic Russians also constitute the majority in regionally significant cities, such as Krasnodon , Sverdlovsk , Krasnyi Luch and Stakhanov .
In the 2001 Ukrainian Census, more than 68.8% of the population considered themselves Russian speakers, while 30.0% considered themselves Ukrainian speakers. The Russophone population predominates in the southern portion of the region and around the city of Luhansk, while the northern region is less populated, mostly agricultural and Ukrainophone.
Its population (as of 2004) of 2,461,506 constitutes 5.13% of the overall Ukrainian population. The Luhansk Oblast rates fifth in Ukraine by the number of its inhabitants, having an average population density of 90.28/km 2 . About 87% of the population lives in urban areas, while the remaining 13% reside in agricultural areas. According to the national census, 54% of the population are Ukrainians and 42% are Russians.
Age structure [ edit ]
- 0-14 years: 12.3% (male 143,272/female 134,803)
- 15-64 years: 71.4% (male 768,544/female 838,639)
- 65 years and over: 16.3% (male 117,782/female 248,914) (2013 official)
Median age [ edit ]
- total: 42.1 years
- male: 38.2 years
- female: 45.9 years (2013 official)
Economy [ edit ]
Economically the region is connected with the Donets Basin .
Extracting industry [ edit ]
- Lysychansk Coal
- Luhansk Coal
- Sverdlov Anthracite
- Pervomaisk Coal
- Rovenky Anthracite
- Donbas Anthracite
Machine building [ edit ]
- Krasnyi Luch Machine building Factory
- Pervomaisk Power mechanical Factory
- Stakhanov Railcar Plant
Metallurgy [ edit ]
Chemical and oil refinery [ edit ]
- Sievierodonetsk Association Azot
- Association Skloplastyk
- Lysynchansk Oil Refinery
Agriculture [ edit ]
The oblast has post industrial sites which run off building material into surrounding land. Yakymchuk 2018 finds feral stands of Triticum aestivum have colonised several of these sites. 
Power generation [ edit ]
Transport [ edit ]
Through the region pass two major European routes E50 and E40 . There are 24 Russo-Ukrainian international border checkpoints of various entry.
- E50 within the Luhansk Oblast uses highway M03 that starts from Debaltseve ( Donetsk Oblast ), passes through the city of Krasnyi Luch , and enters the Russian Federation at the border checkpoint "Dovzhansky" (settlement Dovzhanske, town of Biryukove).
- E40 within the Luhansk Oblast uses highway M04 that starts from Debaltseve ( Donetsk Oblast ), passes through the city of Luhansk , and enters the Russian Federation at the border checkpoint "Izvaryne" (town of Izvaryne).
- There is also another highway H21 that runs from north to south and connects Starobilsk , Luhansk , and Krasnyi Luch with Donetsk .
Rail transportation is administered by the Donetsk Railway.
There is also its regional airport Luhansk International Airport with its own carrier.
Education [ edit ]
Specialized [ edit ]
- Luhansk State Medical University
- Luhansk National Agrarian University
- Luhansk State University of Internal Affairs
Points of interest [ edit ]
The following sites were nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine .
- The house of Dal's birth (Luhansk)
- Fighters for the Revolution monument
- Derkul horse factory
- Royal Rocks (Luhansk State Preserve)
- Chasm Steppe ( Sverdlovsk Raion )
- Ram Foreheads (limestone rocks)
- Mścichowski Palace ( Палац Мсциховського )
Notable residents [ edit ]
- Dov Markus (born 1946), Israeli-American soccer player, born in Donbas.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
- ^ Syvak, Nina; Ponomarenko, Valerii; Khodzinska, Olha; Lakeichuk, Iryna (2011). Veklych, Lesia (ed.). Toponymic Guidelines for Map and Other Editors for International Use (PDF) . United Nations Statistics Division . scientific consultant Iryna Rudenko; reviewed by Nataliia Kizilowa; translated by Olha Khodzinska. Kyiv: DerzhHeoKadastr and Kartographia. p. 20. ISBN 978-966-475-839-7 . Retrieved 6 October 2020 .
- ^ Oda , UA : LG, 2007, archived from the original on 5 August 2008 .
- ^ Umoloda , Kyiv, UA .
- ^ Oda , UA: LG, 1930, archived from the original on 24 May 2011 .
- ^ "Territory" , 70 years , UA: LG, 14 March 2008 , archived from the original on 24 May 2011 , retrieved 17 September 2008 .
- ^ "70 years" , Calendar , UA: LG, 11 April 2008, archived from the original on 24 May 2011 , retrieved 17 September 2008 .
- ^ "Zelensky explains move to change Luhansk region's governor" . UNIAN . 28 October 2019 . Retrieved 8 November 2019 .
- ^ a b Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2021 / Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2021 (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine .
- ^ Про внесення змін і доповнень до Конституції (Основного Закону) Української РСР | від 19.06.1991 № 1213а-XII
- ^ Balmforth, Tom; Djurica, Marko (25 June 2022). "Sievierodonetsk falls to Russia after one of war's bloodiest fights" . Reuters . Retrieved 25 June 2022 .
- ^ "Ukrainian troops told to leave Severodonetsk: governor" . PolskieRadio.pl . Retrieved 24 June 2022 .
- ^ "Ukrainians Retreat From Key Areas Of Eastern Region As Fighting Enters Fifth Month" . Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty . Retrieved 24 June 2022 .
- ^ "Institute for the Study of War" . Institute for the Study of War . Retrieved 3 July 2022 .
- ^ Balmforth, Tom; Hunder, Max (3 July 2022). "Zelenskiy vows to regain Lysychansk after Ukrainian withdrawal" . Reuters . Retrieved 4 July 2022 .
- ^ Roshchina, Olena (25 July 2022). "Russian forces attempt to advance to Luhansk Oblasts administrative borders from 3 directions but retreated" . news.yahoo.com . Retrieved 26 July 2022 .
- ^ Referendum%20in%20the%20Soviet%20Union www.csce.gov
- ^ "Ukraine's Eastern Region Of Luhansk May Now Hold Referendum On Joining Russia" . Business Insider . Retrieved 12 May 2014 .
- ^ BBC News 12 May 2014
- ^ "In Severodonetsk, Petro Poroshenko presented Luhansk RSA Head Hennadiy Moskal - Official web-site of President of Ukraine" . Archived from the original on 18 March 2015 . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
- ^ "Lugansk University. Location, phone, address, contacts" . luganskukraine.info .
- ^ Лише 3% українців хочуть приєднання їх області до Росії [Only 3% of Ukrainians want their region to become part of Russia]. Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (in Ukrainian). 3 January 2015.
- ^ "Russian forces have 'upper hand' in Donbas fighting, Ukrainian officials say" . the Guardian . 26 May 2022 . Retrieved 27 May 2022 .
- ^ "Провідні країни Європи відбудовуватимуть Україну, – Гайдай" . LB.ua . Retrieved 11 July 2022 .
- ^ State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, Kyiv.
- ^ Kobetičová, Klára; Černý, Robert (2019). "Terrestrial eutrophication of building materials and buildings: An emerging topic in environmental studies". Science of the Total Environment . Elsevier . 689 : 1316–1328. Bibcode : 2019ScTEn.689.1316K . doi : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.423 . ISSN 0048-9697 . PMID 31466168 . S2CID 198365229 .
External links [ edit ]
- Official site of Luhansk Oblast Administration (in Ukrainian)
- Information Card of the Region – official site of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine